Celebrating The One and Only Rosa Parks Today


On December 1st, 1955 Rosa Parks was arrested for not giving up her seat on a bus in Montgomery, Alabama. You probably don’t know this, but Rosa Parks had a serious problem with driver James F. Blake, who had ordered her to board at the back door and then drove off without her. (JERK) Parks then vowed to never ride a bus that he drove because of this, but on December 1st she boarded the bus not realizing he was driving. And history was made.


While sitting in the front row of the segregated section of the bus, because Rosa did not give AF, a white passenger asked that all the black passengers in her row move to the back. The other passengers complied but Parks, who just taken a race relations class about nonviolent civil disobedience, made her stand. As a result of her action she was arrested, found guilty on December 5th, and fined a total of $14. That’s a lot of cashola back then. Obvi, like the badass he is, she appealed the decision. From December 1st, 1955 to December 20th, 1956 the Montgomery Bus Boycott swept the state and resulted in a Supreme Court decision that made Rosa Parks LEGEN… wait for it… DARY.  Ever since then, it’s been declared the Alabama and Montgomery laws requiring segregated buses unconstitutional.

In later years she had contact with Martin Luther King Jr. and Malcolm X, and participated in the Selma-to-Montgomery Marches. She and her family faced A LOT of hardships for her activism, but she never ever ever gave up. Pretty cool, huh.

Rosa Parks Day was initially thought of by the California State Legislature, where they decide to celebrate it on February 4, Park’s birthday, in 2000. Missouri followed suit in 2015 and declared February 4th a state holiday. Ohio and Oregon each made their own moves to celebrate Rosa Parks Day on the day she was arrested, December 1st. These four states have made the move to honor Parks for her NAACP activism, her brave civil rights stance, and her sheer grit in the face of opposition.

We have a lot of crazy stuff happening around the world (and in the good ol’ USA) and as those changes happen, we want you to keep this amazing lady in mind —  take some time out today to share your hopes for equality in our society using the hashtag #RosaParksDay. Stand up for what is right, in whatever way that’s uniquely you, and look out for your fellow vinas.

We are all in this together ladies, or as Parks once said “I believe we are here on the planet Earth to live, grow up, and do what we can to make this world a better place for all people to enjoy freedom.”

Thank you for being such a badass, Rosa.

How will you stand up for yourselves and your vinas today? Tell us in the comments!

Originally Posted on Vinazine



One afternoon your kid declares they’ve met the one-that perfect best friend who shares their snack, is awesome on the swing, and has the coolest back pack ever. In your future you now see birthday parties, camping trips, and plenty of other shared adventures. Like lightening striking, your kid’s new friendship has just started a chain reaction in your life that you can’t predict. So what do you do now? You take it and run of course!


The most dicey part of this operation is that very first meeting.From personal experience, save intros for the afternoon pick-up instead of the morning drop-off.  I, for one, am a hot mess until at least 10am (or 3 cups of coffee, whichever comes first) and would rather not chat up someone while battling caffeine deprivation. So if you both pick up your kids in the afternoon, keep your eyes peeled for your counter part. A quick howdy and an exchange of names will get you on chatting terms fast.

If your kids are regulars on the bus have your kiddo pass along a note with a friendly hi and a cell number. Once you get to know each other, you both may find you’re morning people (or not!) and you can try to plan accordingly. The bottom line here – don’t be too over eager, but don’t hesitate to make the first move either.


Since your darling kids initiated this, keep them at the center the first few times you and your new vina mom meet. Make a plan to meet at the park after school so they can play together while you two chat, or catch a movie all together one Saturday. Or, hang out at home and put out some simple snacks for everyone. My fave is a nacho bar – everyone makes what they like. No kids – or adults – can complain about that!

Choose low key activities that keep the kids happy and will let you two get comfortable together. The easy camaraderie that kids often have is contagious, just give it a try. Chat about their school, their shared obsession with all things Zootopia, and swap ideas for upcoming birthdays. Having kids who are friends means you have a go to topic of conversation. You’ll be surprised how quickly the conversation turns from the kids to everything else.


You’re friendly now. You text occasionally. You’ve probably been to each other’s house at least one. Here’s the big one – that leap into real friendship. You and this new-ish vina need to share a grownups only adventure, stat! If your both gym rats, meet for a workout sesh while the kiddos are in school. Zumba or Jazzercise are absolutely addicting and a great way to spend an hour or two together.

Or hop over to that new brewery in town, or rent Bad Moms and leave the kids with your significant others. If you both find you want to make a difference in your kids’ school, join the PTA or sign up as parent volunteers. Even better, go big and do all of the above! Follow what you both love and a happy vina-ship will appear.

What makes a real friendship is the quality time you spend together. Of course you’re not always going to agree on stuff, and of course your kids may bicker at times, but the more shared experiences you have together the more you’ll want to hang out. Before long you’ll be mama BFFs for life.

Share in the comments how you and your other mom friends became besties!

(Feature image via @disastersofathirtysomething)



You’re taking a break from studying, globe trotting, grocery shopping, toddler chasing, and project managing to revisit your high school stomping grounds. With nothing to fill your hours but eating and catching up (and if you’re me, reading!) it only makes sense that you may want to track down some of your old squad. To make reclaiming your high school turf easier, here are a few tips worth filing away, just in case your rise to the throne proves a little bumpy.


As a role model for all impeccable behavior look no farther than Queen Emily Gilmore. From season 7 (hear me out! I know you’re feelings about season 7) episode 3 Emily reminds us that “when the conversation lags, a good guest ought to be prepared to introduce a new topic. Keep it light — no politics, no religion. My little trick? Think of things in the middle three sections of the Sunday New York Times — travel, arts & leisure, Sunday styles — and forget the rest of the paper exists.”

Today we can sub in something from TMZ, Bustle, or of course chatter from your favorite VINAZINE article, but the idea is still the same. Those first few minutes of chat when you bump into each other at Starbucks may be dicey, so come with your game face on. What’s up with Brad and Angelia today? Have you tried an apple cider mimosa? Did you read Natashia Deón’s book Grace yet?

Keeping up today on random articles, books you’ve loved, and some reality TV gossip will save you both from conversation lags. And please, save the political talk for those extended family dinners.


There is a lot of comfort in familiarity. Did you and your vinas hang out at a local indie coffee shop? Is there a one of a kind restaurant in your home town that everyone has always, always, always loved? I remember coming home one summer to find that the chairs at our coffee shop had been replaced. Sure, we were a bit sad they were gone, but we also spent a lot of that afternoon reminiscing and laughing about all the goofy teenage things we used to do while sitting in those chairs. This one silly change, these new chairs, also propelled us into talking about other new things in our lives- our kids and our jobs and the escapades of our families. With your besties, no matter how long you’ve been apart, a small thing like a familiar setting can quickly bring back some amazing memories.


Selfies and #tbt’s are two things most vinas all have in common. If you’re scrambling around for plans with those old pals, trying something a little old school. Go see a movie together and sneak in snacks like some serious OGs. My BFFs and I saw every Harry Potter movie when they originally came out, so it would be amazing to see the newest film from JK Rowling together again.

Grab a selfie with a poster and it will seem like no time has passed at all. Brave enough to take this even farther? See if there is a high school football game on the calendar and don your letterman’s jackets like the lady bosses you’ve always been.


Do a run down of the whole graduating class. Where is that star football player now (last I heard he’s playing for the Raiders, FYI)? Or how about what’s her name, the girl who always had the best jeans in the world? Odds are with Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram you have all kept up with someone. Not only will time fly by remembering so many people, you might also find yourself learning new stories about old friends. Time and perspective can open new doors you never knew existed. You may even find that someone you’ve lost contact with lives not too far from your new home- hello! Extra vina for a wine date! In the converse, don’t hesitate to be introduced to someone new. Everyone makes new pals, so open yourself up to your old friend’s new friend!  A trip back in time may just propel you in the future.

No matter who you want to connect with this Thanksgiving, be it favorite family members or old high school friends, just enjoy it. You’re only in town for a few days, so instead of stressing enjoy the opportunity!

Tell us in the comments who you’re most excited to see when you go home for the holidays!

(Feature image via Urban Outfitters)

Posted First on VINAZINE


Your mommy group can become your best vinas, your comrades in arms, and that small sliver in sanity when your toddler is bouncing off the walls. Whether you are planning play dates or much needed wine nights, you need some wicked awesome moms by your side. In addition to those kid free vinas you’ve been pals with for years, every mom undoubtedly needs some ladies with kids around the same age in her life. It’s relaxing to hangout in another vina’s living room without fear of your kid breaking something priceless (it’s all been child proofed or broken by now- trust me) or being embarrassed by a tantrum. To quote Woody from that classic Toy Story, “Don’t have a mommy group? Get one!”


We are everywhere, I promise you that. If you’re just starting on your quest to fill your Mommy Round Table, check out the local library. Story time is full of great stay at home moms who are looking for a little time away from the house with people who won’t judge their yoga pants. The closest park to your house is also a safe bet to find like minded vinas and their tots enjoying the sun. If your littles are in school chat up the pick up and drop off crowd- you all automatically have something in common to spark a convo. I really mean it, moms are everywhere, and unless the kiddos are melting down on the floor of the grocery store, we would love to talk for a minute.


Things totally change once you start making cute little human babies. Nap time, preschool days, and the availability of snacks become paramount to a successful day. Few things are more heartbreaking than meeting a great crew and then realizing that everyone has drastically different nap times/lunch times/witching hours (it is so a real thing, I swear it). A lot can be sacrificed for some much needed mommy breaks, but I for one won’t give my toddler’s nap. She needs her rest to avoiding acting like a banshee at dinner time, and I need to watch reruns of The Great British Baking Show. Now after dinner drinks are a different thing- there is always a way to make that work.


Not sure how a new mom squad will mesh? Try planning a group project, like one of those nifty paint and wine outings. If chardonnay and a wonky painting of Hogwarts doesn’t help you bond I don’t know what will. If someone is feeling brave, try hosting it instead of going out. With mom’s flexibility is key, and a vina’s date night in just might fit the bill. A craft or a project will help give your night direction and smooth over any new friend jitters. Working on something together will also give you a chance to find more things in common than you expected. Maybe you all discover that Mod Podge decor isn’t your calling (but you can totally laugh about it), or you fall in love with the same six-pack of nitro stout. Or maybe you abandon the project half way and spend the night watching Outlander #sorrynotsorry.


Try to set up a Facebook group together. I was part of a new mom’s group right after I had my daughter and we made ourselves a private Facebook group. We used our group to plan  outings, or at least invite any and all out for spontaneous coffee time. We shared recipes and photos of our kids. If someone got a duplicate of a book or a toy as a gift we could offer it to the others. Facebook is not a substitute for real time chat sessions, but it can absolutely make organizing them easier. Plus, having that safe space online is super helpful on those late mommy nights when you need a BFF. Or ten.

The first step is a smile though. Make eye contact with the other tired looking mom sitting with you in circle time. Offer a kind word the the kindred spirit who’s child has decided that the toilet paper aisle is a great place to pretend to be a snake. We are all in this together, so lets go hangout.

(Feature image via @livinglifesmoments)

originally published on VINAzine

Dog Eared Review: i be, but i ain’t by Aziza Barnes

Pages: 80
Publisher: YesYes Books
Released: 2016
Dog Eared Review 
In a sidestep from my usual reviews, this time around I am featuring a full length collection of poetry instead of a chapbook. Now, you may think that reviewing either length would be the same, but that would be a sad misunderstanding of each form. In a chapbook most poets explore a single theme, or style, or image, using their roughly 25 pages to put a spotlight on one thing. A full book, much like a novel compared to a short story, can dip its toes in many forms, emotions, and images. For me personally I find chapbooks to be a more intellectual experience while a full length collection to be an emotional one. But that, again, is just me.
Aziza Barnes has demonstrated many forms, ranging from blocky prose poems like “the mutt debates what it might come down to:” to the slim and streamlined left justified pieces, such as “descendants.” I’d go out on a limb and say the the signature style is the breathless free verse that is peppered throughout to great effect. On this train of thought the poem “a good deed is done for no good reason” is a wonderful example of the form and the key substance of the collection as a whole. There are many shades of the political within, be it the government pushing in, or society horning in, but in the end the reader needs to remember that “industry of human hands/you are just/ yourself & no one has made you.”
The personal and sexual sides of politics, how the world as a whole and the individuals specifically, are incessantly pressing their ideals and expectations onto us, trying to shape us, is so key to this collection. Another key theme, one that shapes almost all discussion, is race. No poem better encapsulates racial politics better than “brown noise;” the pieces travels over stereotypes and realities so deftly, and with such a restrained hand, making it all the more effective and devastating. There are also visual moments that support the content, with the poem “down like a shot” coming to mind. The physical structure of the poem matches the content, with the lines quickly diminishing like a shot. The lines also mimic that wordless slip into passion and the abrupt stop out of it with the second to the longest line “don’t start something you can’t finish is maybe the worst advice” coming after the shortest. It is all these careful content and style choices, this blurring between the art and the reality, that allows many of the poems to transcend the words on the page.
Dog Eared Pages:

14, 15, 18, 19, 25, 27, 29, 30, 33, 34, 36, 39, 40, 43, 44, 49, 50, 61, 62, 64, 65, 70

Check out more reviews and other awesome stuff at The Next Best Book Club

5 Books About Inspiring Older Siblings

As the oldest child in my family, I am pretty biased in my believe that eldest siblings rule. We came first, we work hard, and we look great doing it! Some of the most famous people in the world have been oldest siblings, and many of our favorite fictional characters also showed up first. Beyond Bill Weasley, Winston Churchill, and every actor who has ever played James Bond, check out these other utterly fantastic big brothers and sisters.

Smile and Sisters: The Box Set, by Raina Telgemeier
Fall in love with Raina, who handily tackles the many challenges life throws her way. In Smile, she suffers an injury to her mouth that forces her to wear braces and headgear and basically everything else in the orthodontic world. After overcoming that major life event, Sisters find her trying to embrace her new role as a big sister. In these funny and engaging graphic novels, Telgemeier recounts her feelings on becoming on older sister, and navigating the teenage years with style and aplomb. (Ages 8–12)

Of Thee I Sing: A Letter to My Daughters, by Barack Obama and Loren Long
Malia and Sasha Obama are of course the nation’s current First Daughters, but they are also beautifully illustrated young ladies in this sweet book by President Obama. Malia and Sasha, like Jenna and Barbara, and Chelsea before them, have spent their formative years in a unique house that is unlike any other. Oldest sibling Malia has some pretty historic role models to help her set a good example for her younger sibling. (Ages 6–8)

I am George Washington (B&N Exclusive Edition), by Brad Meltzer and Christopher Eliopoulos
If you want to talk about awesome oldest kids, look no father than George Washington. You know, the General of the Union Army and, uh, the first President of the United States. He was the oldest of nine kids, including both full siblings and half siblings. Is it possible that leading this herd of kids around Ferry Farm in Stafford County near Fredericksburg, and later the famous Mount Vernon, helped shape him into the world-changing leader that we all know and love? I’m going to say yes. (Ages 5–8)

The Tale of Peter Rabbit: A Story Board Book, by Beatrix Potter
Peter Rabbit is the leader of this gang of mischievous bunny rabbits as they snatch vegetables from Mr. McGregor’s garden. He might not set the best example, seeing as he steals food and and loses his jacket. But, he is brave! Peter also learns his lesson, and he takes his lumps with a strong upper lip and a sense of pride. Like all good older kids, Peter helps to take care of his mom, is proud of their house and garden, and turns into a loving uncle to his nieces and nephews. (Ages 2–5)

Frozen Little Golden Book (Disney Frozen), by RH Disney
Queen Elsa. Queen. Yup, this oldest sister is queen of an entire kingdom — no mere princess here! She has an unbelievable magical power, and is able to inspire her younger sister’s great bravery and unfailing love. In true oldest sibling form, Elsa doesn’t let either guilt or being ostracized because she is different stop her from going after her dreams. With her inner strength and dignity, not to mention a fabulous dress and killer vocals, Elsa is an older sister like no other. (Ages 2–5)

Finding Dory Little Golden Book (Disney/Pixar Finding Dory), by RH Disney
This may be one of the biggest literary mysteries of our day: Is Dory the oldest, the middle, or the youngest in what is probably a very large family? Dory is brave, take charge, and caring, so maybe she is indeed the oldest sibling. She will also gladly follow Marlin into any adventure, so she could also be the middle child. Then again, she does love a good caring shoulder, some help from her friends, and has a thirst to prove herself — youngest sibling anyone? No matter where she lies in the family, we love Dory (but my vote is for oldest!). (Ages 2–5)

Who are your favorite oldest sibling characters?

As seen first on Barnes and Noble!

Summer Must Read: Grace by Natashia Deon

Grace, Natashia Deon’s debut novel from Counterpoint Press, is an emotional tour de force and an absolute must read. That may seem like a bold statement, but when a book balances the Civil War, racism, abuse, and a ghost story with almost effortless beauty, it is an accurate one. The novel is told from the point of view main character Naomi as she navigates her terrifying life as a child living in slaves quarters, a runaway teenager working in a whore house, and an ever watchful mother. Her daughter Josie is both blessed and cursed because of her parentage, as she too finds herself straddling two different worlds. Despite being separated by Naomi’s death, and the collapse of the South, their two lives intersect in the most unexpected, meaningful ways.

Deon creates a rich and diverse world in the South both before and after the Civil War. There are no stereotypes here: not in the woman who comes to own Josie, not in the madam a who runs the whore house, not in the blacksmith, not in the piano player. Each character is far more than their race, their religion, or the job that they hold. Even the most passing character feels like a flesh and blood person, weighed down with their own past and their own failings. The issues in Grace reach right down to what it means to be good, to be human, and to overcome. Considering the fact that the story spans two lifetimes, two states, and a whole host of tumultuous events, it is quite an achievement to craft the many multidimensional characters that populate this novel.

Without giving away too much of the plot, the bulk of the story is told by Naomi after she has died, and it jumps between her actual life and her spirit life. Allowing readers to see Naomi’s life, her death, and her ability to reflect on both of them is part of what makes this story unique. Everything is convincing; it seems right and logical and necessary to see both Naomi’s life and to watch her watch Josie’s life. This is a tall order to juggle as a reader, and a writer, but once you get into the rhythm of the book, it sweeps you away. The story encompasses many small details — who lives where, who knows whom, who passes who else in the forest — all of which eventually build into a startling climax. I finished Grace in almost one night because toward the end, it was nearly impossible to stop reading.

Hearing the story from Naomi’s perspective allows readers to encounter a lot of period language and slang, which helps you get into the setting and the mindset of the time. She is a self taught woman, having had only life and the Bible to guide her, so her speech and thoughts evolve in an organic way as the story progresses. It may take some readers a few pages to nail that voice in their heads, but I found that it made the book even more immersive. The attention to detail, from the way cellars and floor boards creak, to the minutia of doing laundry and cleaning, help remind readers of the way so many of us used to live. With thoughtful use of historical facts and details, along with vivid descriptions of the landscapes, I was always surprised and engaged.

I was able to get a hold of an advance ebook copy, but I plan on heading out to add the hard cover to my shelves at home. You should probably do the same, since soon enough everyone should be talking about Grace.

Grace is available in stores and online now.

6 Awesome Middle Grade Dads

In honor of Father’s Day, lets celebrate our favorite middle grade dads, whether they be biological, adoptive, or living only in our memories. Many of us have a special bond with or memory of our dads, which has forever shaped us. My own Dad takes a lot of pride in doing things himself, and as I’ve grown older I find myself appreciating those same traits. He is also really great at backing a motorhome into any size campsite. These middle grade novels all feature special relationships with fathers, be they god, mortal or somewhere in between. No matter who they are, or what they do, let’s just all agree that we’re pretty lucky to have these guys in our lives.

The Hidden Oracle (B&N Exclusive Edition) (The Trials of Apollo Series #1), by Rick Riordan
Zeus is the father of Apollo, who just happens to now be trapped in the body of a regular New York City kid. That, on its own, is amazing and inspiring and everything that a dad/son story should be. Parents aren’t always easy people to get along with, I admit it, but when your dad happens to be the head honcho of all Greek gods, the stakes are that much higher. In another wonderful series from Rick Riordan (you’ve heard of Percy Jackson, perhaps? Magnus Chase, maybe?) kids pull out all the stops to save the world, prove their worth, and earns some serious brownie points for their otherworldly parents. Zeus is no one to mess with, and he knows it! Plus, he gives Dad Bods a good name.

Harry Potter and the Cursed Child – Parts I & II, by J. K. Rowling, Jack Thorne, John Tiffany
This whole series is jam packed with awesome dads, and The Cursed Child is set to be another great addition. Fans get reintroduced to Harry and Ron, this time as fathers to young Albus and Rose, who are embarking on their first year at Hogwarts. With their own awesome examples of fatherhood (Arthur Weasley and James Potter), as well the slightly reckless influences of Sirius Black and Remus Lupin over their childhoods, it will be fun for fans to see what kind of fathers these two have become. The even more pressing question may be: what kind of father is Draco, and does Scorpius follow in the Malfoy family footsteps.

Pinocchio, by Carlo Collodi
In this classic story, Pinocchio lets his mischievous ways lead him astray from his loving adopted father, Geppetto (with more rule breaking and adventures than the movie, and also more heart and more love between Pinocchio and Geppetto). Readers also get a chance to think on what makes a family: is it birth, or is it unreserved love, or some combination? Pinocchio eventually learns to behave, attains some much needed-bravery, and finds that the one person who has always been true to him is his very own father.

The Little House series (9-Book Boxed Set), by Laura Ingalls Wilder and Garth Williams
Pa, father to Laura Ingalls, is the perfect example of a pioneer days dad. He works his tail off all day in the the fields, or goes hunting, or sugaring, but he still has the time to teach his kids the life skills they need to survive on the frontier. Laura lovingly remembers all the nights he played the fiddle, the careful way he did his farm work, and the bravery he showed even when things got tough. Whether they are out riding horses, taking their first train ride, or raising the walls of a new home, Pa is absolutely a guy who should be celebrated on Father’s Day—but he definitely doesn’t need a tie, or a mug with golf jokes on it.

Song of the Deep, by Brian Hastings
In this soon to be released book (and video game!) twelve-year-old Merryn lives with her father, who is a deep sea fisherman. After a terrible storm, Merryn worries that he is lost at sea. Thanks to the courage and imagination that her father fostered in her, she builds her own submarine to find him. While traveling the ocean, she learns that her father’s many deep-sea legends just might be true, and also that she is stronger, braver, and smarter than she ever believed. Sometimes a father’s love, support, and encouragement can send us out on the most amazing journeys.

Captain of the Ship (American Girl Beforever Series: Caroline #1), by Kathleen Ernst, Juliana Kolesova, and Michael Dworkin
The American Girl books always have great, multidimensional relationships between their parents and their kids. Whether it is Molly’s dad being deployed during the war, Kit’s dad trying to work through the Depression, or Addy worrying about her dad as he escapes slavery, there is no shortage of important fathers. One of the most standout dads has to be Caroline’s father, the proud ship builder who is taken hostage in 1812. Caroline is so inspired by her father’s love of sailing and his ship building business that she can’t help by stray back to Lake Ontario at every opportunity. She braves the lake, and the British, in an attempt to rescue him, all because of their strong, reciprocal love.

What stories do you love to share with your dads?

Originally Published with Barnes and Noble

Dog Eared Review: Daughter Eraser

Straight Forward

Daughter Eraser by Amber West
Pages: 29
Publisher: Finishing Line Press
Released: 2015

I want to start first by saying that this is a beautiful book. The actual physical artifice of the thing is just lovely, all the way down to the paper used for the front material. I know that is strange way to start a review, but I was really taken with how attractive this book is. In the world if digital media and online publishing it is great to see a carefully made book.

Now the reason we are all here- the actually words inside the book! Amber West, a self described feminist writer, has brought all things female front and center in this collection of poems. From discussing the struggle of parenthood, conflicts with family, and the infinite ways that men can be letdowns, her poems are thoughtful and unflinching. Many of these themes can be…

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Dog Eared Review: The Delphi Series Volume II

Straight Forward

The Delphi Series Volume II: Featuring Joy Ladin, Jennifer Litt, and Tasha Cotter
Pages: 82
Publisher: Blue Lyra Press
Released: 2016

This second entry in The Delphi Series is a great way for readers to get a wide ranging taste of poetry styles all in one book! Featuring chapbooks Answers to the Name of ‘Lucky’ by Joy Ladin, Maximum through Zero by Jennifer Litt, and Torch by Tasha Cotter, this collection has a little bit of everything. If you want sad, more contemplative verse, to a bit of whimsy, to careful use of sound and form, it is all right here in one place.

Answers to the Name of ‘Lucky’ by Joy Ladin consists of sixteen poems, which struggle with both the idea and the physical manifestation of family. There is a lot of interesting back and forth with what family is as a child, as parent, and simply as…

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